Iron Sequestration in Microbiota Biofilms As A Novel Strategy for Treating Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Significant alterations of intestinal microbiota and anemia are hallmarks of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is widely accepted that iron is a key nutrient for pathogenic bacteria, but little is known about its impact on microbiota associated with IBD. We used a model device to grow human mucosa-associated microbiota in its physiological anaerobic biofilm phenotype. Compared to microbiota from healthy donors, microbiota from IBD patients generate biofilms ex vivo that were larger in size and cell numbers, contained higher intracellular iron concentrations, and exhibited heightened virulence in a model of human intestinal epithelia in vitro and in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We also describe an unexpected iron-scavenging property for an experimental hydrogen sulfide-releasing derivative of mesalamine. The findings demonstrate that this new drug reduces the virulence of IBD microbiota biofilms through a direct reduction of microbial iron intake and without affecting bacteria survival or species composition within the microbiota. Metabolomic analyses indicate that this drug reduces the intake of purine nucleosides (guanosine), increases the secretion of metabolite markers of purine catabolism (urate and hypoxanthine), and reduces the secretion of uracil (a pyrimidine nucleobase) in complex multispecies human biofilms. These findings demonstrate a new pathogenic mechanism for dysbiotic microbiota in IBD and characterize a novel mode of action for a class of mesalamine derivatives. Together, these observations pave the way towards a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of patients with IBD.